De Bulla Aurea... [Back]

In 1222 AD, general dissatisfaction with the government almost led to an open rebellion in Hungary. King Endre II succeeded in pacifying the country by issuing a letter of rights know as the Golden Bull (Bulla Aurea).

Issued only seven years after its famous predecessor, the Magna Charta of England, the Bull set limitations on royal rights and prerogatives to become one of the fundamental pillars of Hungarian constitution. By narrowing the breach between the upper and middle classes, the Golden Bull assured personal freedom and other basic rights for all but the serfs, including women’s rights in matters of inheritance. The nobles, in turn were granted the privilege of resisting any illegal royal decree without imputation of high treason.

This was a pioneering deed through which Hungary led continental Europe in limiting royal power.